Colombia is a country without traditional weather seasons but it is characterised by dry and rainy periods throughout the year.
Colombia is located in the equatorial region, within the Andes mountain range which enters the country from the south and crosses all the way over to the north side. The mountain range provides the country's topographical variety: from moist forests, tropical plains, moorlands and perpetual snow.
As the country is located in the equatorial region, it possesses a tropical climate which is distinguished by very high temperatures throughout the whole year. But in combination with factors such as the mountain system, according to height, it provides a great variety of climates throughout the territory having a strong influence over the vegetation and fauna.
Two principal geographic factors determine Colombia´s climate:
• Latitude - The Colombian territory is located mostly in the northern hemisphere of the Earth and throughout is within the torrid zone. This means that the sun´s rays project over the country in a vertical form throughout the year. For this reason, this region is considered to be part of the hottest zone in the world.
• Altitude - This is the geographical factor that manages to counteract and avoid the climatic characteristics derived from the latitude named before. The existence of the 'Cordillera de Los Andes' throughout Colombian territory, generates the variety of climates that can be found in the country. From the most ardent temperature (extremely wet or dry) to extremely cold zones filled with ice and snow. This gives rise to the so-called thermal floors.
The characteristics of the ground’s relief has an influence over some of the other factors that affect the climate, such as large bodies of waters represented by the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and trade winds coming from both north and south.
Depending on the altitude above the sea level the average temperatures can be found between 0°C and 35°C.
Therefore, the type of clothing you should bring depends on the Colombian cities you want to visit. Brining clothes equipped for warm as well as wet weather is your best bet. For example, if you visit Bogotá at any time of the year you will require warm clothes and if you visit Cartagena, Santa Marta or Barranquilla, as these cities are located at sea level, you will need clothing for hot weather.
The main climates in Colombia are:
• Rainforests with humidity, rain and extreme temperatures.
• Tropical climate of Savannah which is semi-humid .
• Tropical climate of steppe - high temperatures and minimum precipitation.
• Tropical climate of a desert with high temperatures and rain a rarity.
• Tropical mountain climate - differences in the relief gives rise to thermal floors
(warm, temperate, cold, moorland and glaciers).